How many of the Massachusetts Shillings were issued illegally?
The history of the Massachusetts 3 & 6 pence and shillings is fascinating. Minting silver and gold coinage was prohibited by the crown but King Charles was overthrown and replaced by the Commonwealth of England from 1649 to 1660. It was during this time the colonists in Massachusetts decided to mint their own coins, struck by John Hull and Robert Sanderson, two Massachusetts settlers. The crown was restored in 1660 while the coins continued to be issued until 1682 when the mint was closed by the government. It was common knowledge that Massachusetts was violating the royal edict from 1660 to 1682 but by backdating all coins to 1652 when it was legal, they avoided offending the crown.
Is it known which coins were struck after 1660 and thus "illegal"?
Of note, the pine tree symbolized the pine trees Massachusetts exported to build ship masts.
Here's an oak tree shilling from Dwight N. Manley's collection to get the discussion started: